英語の質問の作り方

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May 9, 2012 04:52
僕が勉強していた言語のなかで、母国語の英語は質問の作り方が一番変だと思います。
Among the languages I have studied, I think my own native language, English, has the strangest way of forming questions.

英語でどう言明を質問に変化するか説明してみたいです。
I would like to explain how to change an assertion into a question in English.

変化の仕方は言明の本動詞が何かによります。
This depends on what the main verb of the assertion is.

(1)本動詞は「to・be」の変化(例えば「is」、「am」、「are」、「was」、「were」、など、など)であるなら、言明の主語の前に動きます。
(1) If it is a form of "to be" (such as "is", "am", "are", "was" or "were"), then it moves before the subject of the assertion.

例えば。
For example:

The president of the bank is a lawyer.
Is the president of the bank a lawyer?

Tom, Dick and Harry were in high school together.
Were Tom, Dick and Harry in high school together?

(2)助動詞があるなら、一番目の助動詞は主語の前に動きます。
(2) If there are one or more auxiliary (helping) verbs, the first one moves before the subject.

例えば。
For example:

The president of the bank is studying French.
Is the president of the bank studying French?

The president of the bank has been studying French.
Has the president of the bank been studying French?

Tom, Dick and Harry have all been studying hard for their final exams.
Have Tom, Dick and Harry all been studying hard for their final exams?

Your mother would have been proud of you if she had lived to see this day.
Would your mother have been proud of you if she had lived to see this day?

(3)助動詞がないなら、「do」の変化は主語の前に入れて、本動詞は辞書形になります。「do」の変化は言明の本動詞の変化です。
(3) If there are no auxiliary verbs, a form of "do" is inserted before the subject, and the main verb is changed to dictionary form. The form of "do" is the form of the main verb in the assertion.

例えば。
For example:

The president of the bank has a fancy car.
Does the president of the bank have a fancy car?

Tom, Dick and Harry understood what I was saying.
Did Tom, Dick and Harry understand what I was saying?

We use umbrellas when it is raining.
Do we use umbrellas when it is raining?

(4)to不定詞があるなら、(1)、(2)、(3)のルールでは関係していません。(本動詞の句の部分と考えられません。)
If there is a "to" infinitive, it is not involved in rules (1), (2) and (3). (It is not considered part of the main verb phrase.)

例えば。
Examples:

The purpose of the exercise is to learn as much as one can.
Is the purpose of the exercise to learn as much as one can? (1)

The president of the bank is trying to fire him.
Is the president of the bank trying to fire him? (2)

The president of the bank has been trying to fire him.
Has the president of the bank been trying to fire him? (2)

The president of the bank wants to fire him.
Does the president of the bank want to fire him? (3)

The president of the bank tried to fire him.
Did the president of the bank try to fire him? (3)

この日記を書くのは下心がありました。
I had an ulterior motive in writing this entry.

文法の述語はどちらが使えばいいか習いたいです。^^
I want to learn which grammatical terms I should use.^^

よろしくお願いします。
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