英語の話すことについての動詞 (Speech verbs in English)

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Oct 12, 2012 03:11
僕の知っている日本語の話すについての動詞は、別な状況で使用されますが、文法は同じだと思います。
The Japanese speech verbs that I know are used in different situations, but I think they all have the same grammar.

例えば「話す」や「教える」の場合は、聞き手の後で「に」あるいは「へ」という助詞と入れて、口を利いた言葉の後で「を」あるいは「と」という助詞を入れます。
For example, in the case of both "話す" and "教える", the listener is followed by the particle "に" or the particle "へ", and what is said is followed by the particle "を"or the particle "と".

英語の場合はそうではありません。
It's not that way in English.

例えば「tell me the answer」という文句は正しいですが、「talk me the answer」と「speak me the answer」と「say me the answer」は全て誤用です。
For example, "tell me the answer" is a correct phrase, but "talk me the answer", "speak me the answer" and "say me the answer" are all incorrect.

I'm going to continue in English, because it will take me forever to write this in Japanese, and I think that this information will be useful to many people. If you want to, please translate some of the sentences in the corrections boxes.

I'm going to list the most common usages of several speech verbs. There are some special usages which I will talk about in another entry. For example, the verb "talk" does NOT ordinarily take what is said as a direct object, but there are a few special usages in which it does.

There is a difference in English between a direct quotation, which is the exact words said by someone, and a paraphrase, which is a description of the content of what someone said. I will label these <quote> and <paraphrase>, respectively.

speak (By itself, this simply means 「言葉を話す」.)
speak to/with <someone>
speak about <topic>
speak to/with <someone> about <topic>
speak <language> (This usually means 「<language>が話せる」.)
speak in <language> (This means 「<language>で話す」.)
[Note: "speak" never takes a quotation as a direct object, and only in special cases takes a description of what is said as a direct object. If a listener (<someone>) is mentioned, he, she or it must be preceded by the word "to" or "with".]

talk (By itself, this simply means 「言葉を話す」.)
talk to/with <someone>
talk about <topic>
talk to/with <someone> about <topic>

say "<quote>"
say [that] <paraphrase>
say "<quote>" to <someone>
[Note: "say" is almost always followed by a quotation or a paraphrase. The paraphrase can always be preceded by the word "that", but "that" is sometimes omitted. If a listener (<someone>) is mentioned, he, she or it must be preceded by the word "to".]

tell <someone> <something>, teach <someone> <something>
tell <someone> to <do something>, teach <someone> to <do something>
tell <someone> about/of <something>
[Note: <someone> is almost never absent. <something> can be omitted only if the listener or reader already knows the content of what is said. The two verbs "tell" and "teach" have different meanings, but their grammar is the same. <something> is usually NOT a quotation, but it can be.]

inform <someone> about <something>
inform <someone> of <something>
[Note: <something> is never a quotation. "Informing" is not always done by speaking, but it can be. For example, one can inform someone about something by sending that person an e-mail message.]

ask <someone> "<quote>" [<someone> is usually not omitted.]
ask <something>
ask <someone> <something>
ask if/whether <something>
ask <someone> if/whether <something>
ask <someone> to <do something>

discuss <something>
discuss <something> with <someone>

chat
chat about <topic>
chat with <someone>
chat with <someone> about <topic>


I'm sure that people will have a lot of questions; I'll try to answer some of them in responses to comments, and others in subsequent entries. I also need to give examples of all of these usages.

I'm sorry that this is so vague, but it's something I've felt is needed for a long time, and I don't want to put off starting this discussion any longer.